GLOSSARY :: G ::
Gene Expression: The process by which the genes' coded information is converted into the structures present and operating in the cell. Expressed genes include those that are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into protein and those that are transcribed into RNA but not translated into protein (e.g., transfer and ribosomal RNAs). See Gene, Transcription, RNA.
Gene Mapping: Determination of the relative positions of genes on a DNA molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between them.
Gene: A natural unit of the hereditary material, which is the physical basis for the transmission of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to another. See DNA, Protein.
Genetic Art (Ars Genetica): The field of artistic activity focusing on the design of organisms with heritable given aesthetic characteristics. Classical interpretation of the term based on population genetics (the study of the main factors of evolution: heredity, variability, selection) and mutation genetics (the study of mutations origin).
Genetic Code: A set of triplet code words in DNA coding for all of the amino acids. See Codon, Triplet.
Genetic Engineering: A branch of biotechnology. The selective, deliberate alteration of genes (genetic material) by man. This term has come to have a very broad meaning including the manipulation and alteration of the genetic material (constitution) of an organism in such a way as to allow it to produce endogenous proteins with properties different from those of the traditional (historical/typical), or to produce entirely different (foreign) proteins altogether. See Biotechnology.
Genetics: The branch of biology concerned with heredity. It studies the manner in which genes operate and are transmitted from parents to offspring.
Genome: The entire hereditary material in a cell, or the whole sequence of DNA. The human genome consists of 3.3 billion nucleotides coding approximately 30,000 genes (i.e., about 100,000 pairs of nucleotides per gene), bacterium genome - from 600,000 nucleotides / 600 genes (intracellar parasites) to 6-8 million nucleotides / 5,000 - 6,000 genes (freely functioning bacteria).
Genomic Kitch: Art works based on a biotechnology idea realized at the level of play with the issue by traditional media without concerning the essence of biotechnology itself.
Genomics: Analysis of the entire genome (complete set of genes) of an organism; provides information regarding the gene and protein composition of a cell. The particular biotechnological discourse covering both fundamental research (see HGP) and a variety of medical genetic practices, also a collection of specific languages, social conflicts, political campaigns, myths and knowledge, hopes and threats to human existence.
Genotype: The total hereditary constitution that an individual inherits from parents; the genetic constitution of an organism. See also Phenotype.
Greenwash: Disinformation by companies aimed at creating an image of a responsible attitude towards the environment.