GLOSSARY :: N ::
Nano-: A prefix meaning ten to the minus ninth power, or one billionth.
Nanocomputer: A computer made from components (mechanical, electronic, etc.) on a nanometer scale.
Nanolithography: The art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers (units of 10-9 meters, or millionths of a millimeter). This includes various methods of modifying semiconductor chips at the atomic level for the purpose of fabricating integrated circuits. See Assembler, Nanotechnology.
Nanomedicine: The application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
Nanometer (nm): A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meters, or one billionth of a meter. It is commonly used in nanotechnology, the building of extremely small machines.
Nanorobot (Nanobot): A nanorobot is a specialized nanomachine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision. Nanorobots have dimensions on the order of nanometers (a nanometer is a millionth of a millimeter, or 10-9 meter). See also Nanometer, Nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology: A technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build structures to complex, atomic specifications.
Neogenesis: Correction of the genetic code with the intention of using in organism construction those amino acids, which exist in nature, but which have never been used by terrestrial life forms. See Chimera Art.
Neural Simulation: Imitating the functions of a neural system - such as the brain - by simulating the function of each cell. See also Cell.
Neurobot: A robot the program of which is designed on the principle of neuronet function.
Neuron: A nerve cell that receives and conducts nerve impulses from the brain. It consists of a cell body called cyton, an axon, axon terminals, and dendrites.
Nonsense Codon: Any one of three triplets (U-A-G, U-A-A, or U-G-A) that cause the termination of protein synthesis (in ribosome), and thus the release from ribosome of a (completely translated) protein molecule.
Nucleotide: A small molecule composed of three parts: a nitrogen base (purine or pyrimidine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and phosphate. Nucleotides serve as the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In the genetic alphabet there are only four "letters"-nucleotides: A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), T (thymine). The sequence of "letters"-nucleotides along the DNA chain carries information determining the biological peculiarities of a living organism. See DNA.
Nucleus (biol.): A structure in advanced cells that contains the chromosomes and apparatus to transcribe DNA into RNA. See Transcription. In physics, the small, dense core of an atom.