Brandon Ballengee ::: Biography

THE ORIGINS OF ARTIFICIAL SELECTION

Our relationship to plants and other animals has evolved over thousands of generations of coexistence. Overtime domestication has allowed for the creation of human induced or artificially selected new life-forms. This progressive understanding of inheritance and eventually genetics has allowed us to refine our living creations to artistic levels. Research suggests that animal domestication began somewhere between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. [1] There is even evidence that it may have begun much earlier, archaeologists have found what they believe to be fossilized canine dung in human habitations belonging to the Gravettian culture in Europe. [2] The culture began at least 35,000 years ago and may date back as far as 60,000 years ago. It is unknown what role these first domesticated dogs played in the lives of our Paleolithic ancestors, but it is easy to imagine that they offered both companionship and served several utilitarian functions such as protection and aid with hunts.
By Mesolithic times evidence has shown that dogs were indeed domesticated and that there were even distinct breeds of them. Humans certainly played a role in altering the natural evolution of these creatures. Charles Darwin suggested that our ancestors did this by a process he referred to as "unconscious selection." [3] His theory is that individual animals that acclimated easily to humans had a greater likelihood of becoming domesticated and breeding within human habitations. Animals that were ill tempered and not compatible with their human needs were probably driven away or perhaps eaten. Yet according to Darwin, these selections were not conscious decisions to modify the overall species, but instead almost reactionary impulses to individual animals. Over time, continued human selective pressure and naturally occurring genetic mutations created new breeds.
Darwin's theory of unconscious selection is strongly supported by recent archaeological and animal behavior studios that exhibit a slow process of mutual adaptation between our species and several species of large tetra-pods. [4] Wild species of oxen, hogs, horses, sheep and others came to regard our presence as tolerable perhaps even attractive. Some were killed and eaten but overall larger numbers thrived in our vicinity. Our crops provided food and the incidental protection they gained from living near human encampments created a special niche for those species willing to fill it. Like the raccoons, starlings, mice and rats of today these pre-domestic stocks learned to take advantage of our domestic habits. They moved in and eventually we learned how to profit from them.




According to the legend, black carp or Magoy are the ancestors of all breeds of today's koi (in the photos).

Ritual and Magic
Geese, poultry and pigeons would have made a viable protein source as well as perhaps played an important ceremonial or even ornamental function in the lives of these early peoples. Artist George Gessert in his article A History of Art Involving DNA sites examples of plants and animals that were domestically grown for their color and magical properties. [5] Carl Sauer in his book Seeds, Spades, Hearth, and Herds suggests that the first chickens to have been domesticated rare variants with black bones that were used in rituals. [6] It is not known if these birds were altered in any way other than behaviorally by domestication. Perhaps birds were the first animals to experience the selective pressure of humans based on aesthetic.
In some of the first large city-states artistic renditions of domesticated birds have been found. Clay figurines of pigeon-like birds have been unearthed at the city-states of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa dating back from between 3300 and 2500 B.C. [7] Painted images of domestic geese can be found in Egyptian tombs from about 2800 B.C. [8] Whether these birds were economically important, sacred or ornamental is not fully known. It is also not known if these animals were selectively breed to induce physical variation. It does not seem too unreasonable to imagine an artisan that had studied the anatomical form of the bird enough to create a detailed figurine or painting would not have wondered about physical variation seen in progressive generations.


Welsh Mountain sheep, one of the numerous breeds of sheep Sir Robert Blakewell experimented with. Photo by Brandon Ballengee in Oban, Scotland, August 2002.

Creatures for Curiosity
Animals kept as curiosities by aristocrats or kings led to the creation of the first menageries or zoos. Numerous species of exotic and domesticated animals were breed and kept throughout the kingdoms of Assyria, Babylon, China, Egypt, Greece and many others. Our distant relatives must have noticed physical mutations among their kept animals. These physical or aesthetic variations may have inspired or sparked their interest enough to tamper with selective breeding. Darwin remarks of the breeders of his day "Hence, if man goes on selecting, and thus augmenting, any peculiarity, he will almost certainly unconsciously modify other parts of the structure." [9]

This on-line version of the book "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture" is not full. The unabridged edition can be purchased in printed form as anthology. Requests should be sent to: bulatov@ncca.koenig.ru (full information) or in written form: 236000, Russia, Kaliningrad, 18, Marx str., The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”. Phone requests: Kaliningrad +7(0112)216251, Saint-Petersburg +7(812)3885881, Moscow +7(095)2867666. On-line bookshop (in Russian): http://www.yantskaz.ru. Full reference to this book: "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture". Edited and curated by Dmitry Bulatov. The National Centre for Contemporary art (Kaliningrad branch, Russia), The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”: Kaliningrad, 2004. ISBN 5-7406-0853-7

A breeding tradition as refined as the koi industry must be defined as conscious selection. Although breeding colored koi is a skilled craft and perhaps even an artform, the Japanese do not consider the koi themselves objects of art such as a painting or sculpture. [11] As the koi are often presented and judged on aesthetic criteria in international koi exhibitions it is difficult not to at least conceptually locate this tradition as one of the potential inspirations of today's genetic art.

Curiosity and Necessity
Throughout the renaissance, interests in exotic imported animals or novelties became very popular with the middle class, yet few records of breeding attempts can be found. By the Victorian Era breeding new varieties of animals became a trend. [12] In the 1740s Sir Robert Blakewell began his program of sheep "improvement" which through selective breeding generated a new line that could be marketed for mutton a year earlier than others. [13] Long before Gregory Mendel discovered the basic principles of genetic inheritance, Blakewell recognized but did not fully understand the mystery of transmission of hereditary material from parent to offspring. Considered to be the father of animal breeding, he utilized inbreeding and intense selection to develop the kinds of animals he desired.
Prompted by the needs of growing urban populations, Blakewell's improved animals grew larger and faster than other breeds and his methodology combined with the later theories of Francis Galton's "quantitative variation" laid the framework for the agricultural revolution. [14] The publishing of herdbooks shed new light into animal breeding practices that allowed these new techniques to be used by many. Soon breed associations formed to safeguard the purity of a breed, and to promote the wider use of its sires. Pedigree selection became widely practiced with carefully documented ancestral records. These heavily controlled breeding programs allowed for the optimal exploitation of the species physical alteration under the given reproductive constraints. Species now could be systematically adapted to meet economic, sporting, emotional, aesthetic and other needs of humankind. [15]
The ethical and moral framework for this new kind of technology of manipulation had been laid out earlier by the dominant Judeo-Christian religion centuries before. In the book of Genesis, god offers the earth and all its animals to the plunder and whim of our species. By the 1600s the philosophical works of Francis Bacon had broadened the divide between man and the natural world even further. In Novum Organum or True Directions Concerning The Interpretation Of Nature Bacon proclaims "I come in very truth leading you Nature with all her children to bind her to your service and make her your slave." [16]
Even more audacious are many of the writings of Rene Descartes. Descartes it seems was not satisfied until man was completely severed from nature. In his view only man was created in the image of god and therefor privileged over all other natural creatures. [17] "I think therefore I am" declared the zealous priest. Other organisms were without a soul and only created to be used by man. He went on to further this master-slave philosophy by declaring that animals though able to move and exhibit specific behaviors were animated mechanically, similar to clocks or small machines. Like the automated toys of his day, Descartes viewed living organisms as complex machines fabricated by god. Unable to feel pain or emotion, animals were nothing more than fodder to be used as we see fit. This disconnect was reverberated in most of the art of the day. Since man was the pinnacle product of god, and art was a creation of man, most of art reflected religious doctrine or propaganda.






Betty Beaumont. Ocean Landmark, 1980. The project realised on the Atlantic Ocean floor, three miles off Fire Island National Seashore. With her work B. Beaumont used compressed bricks of waste coal ash to build an artificial reef for marine organisms.

Against The Great Divide
The dichotomy celebrated by these human-centric beliefs would be partially bridged by the contributions of biological unity offered by Darwin. These theories describe the world and its inhabitants (even insinuating humans) as formative organisms molded over millions of years by selective pressures generated by the environment. This genetic display reflected the never-ending challenge between a species ability to adapt and a constantly changing natural world. Darwin also theorized on the human induced manipulation of domesticated animals. He conducted numerous experiments with several breeds of pigeons recording the variations generated through artificial selection. He noted that "Breeders habitually speak of an animals organization as something quite plastic, which they can model almost as they please." [18] Gessert sites several 19th century writings that describe growing ornamental plants as an artform. Gessert goes on to suggest "it was Darwin's contribution that brought life back into the realm of art, With the publication of the Origin of Species Biblical accounts of life lost their stranglehold on Western culture, and species took on the plasticity of paint and clay." [19]

This on-line version of the book "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture" is not full. The unabridged edition can be purchased in printed form as anthology. Requests should be sent to: bulatov@ncca.koenig.ru (full information) or in written form: 236000, Russia, Kaliningrad, 18, Marx str., The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”. Phone requests: Kaliningrad +7(0112)216251, Saint-Petersburg +7(812)3885881, Moscow +7(095)2867666. On-line bookshop (in Russian): http://www.yantskaz.ru. Full reference to this book: "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture". Edited and curated by Dmitry Bulatov. The National Centre for Contemporary art (Kaliningrad branch, Russia), The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”: Kaliningrad, 2004. ISBN 5-7406-0853-7

Helen and Newton Harrison have created numerous works exploring ecological processes, bioremediation and sustainable practices. Genetics is inherent yet not obviously displayed in many of their projects. In their historic work The Lagoon Cycle, the artists traveled to Sri Lanka to study the edible crab Scylla serrata. Upon returning to the United States, the team worked to create aquatic environments in which the crabs could be sustained while being exhibited in art galleries. While conducting their experiments, the team discovered a methodology by which the crabs could be bred in captivity, something that had never been done before. The Harrisons also made plans, not yet realized, to grow the crabs as a sustainable food source in San Francisco Bay. [25]
Numerous other ecological artworks contain but do not emphasize genetic components. Mel Chin's Revival Field used specially bred plants, called hyperaccumulators, to absorb dangerous heavy metals from a toxic landfill. [26] Alan Sonfist's Time Landscape: Greenwich Village attempts to recreate a natural ecosystem similar to those found in New York State prior to the arrival of the European settlers. Collaborating with numerous scientists and the New York City Parks Department, Sonfist reintroduced once native genetic lines of plants back into New York City. These recreated wild areas provided habits for numerous species of animals within the urban landscape. [27]
Bioremediation or Land reclamation projects all implicitly contain genetic factors. Tim Collins, Reiko Goto and Bob Bingham's Nine Mile Run transformed a former industrial waste site into a large urban park. [28] Aviva Rahmani worked for almost a decade to restore a damaged island ecosystem in her project Ghost Nets. [29] Agnes Denes is collaborating with the Finnish government to create Tree Mountain - A living Time Capsule. The monumental work involves turning a gravel-pit into a forest by planting ten-thousand trees by ten thousand different people over a span of 400 years. Creating this woodland will not only help to clean air but will also establish essential habit for animals. [30] With her work, Ocean Landmark, Betty Beaumont used compressed bricks of waste coal ash to build an artificial reef for marine organisms. [31] Patricia Johanson has planned and built ecological parks out of formerly degraded areas. Similarly, Nancy Holt has worked for ten years attempting to turn a New Jersey landfill in to a park. [32] Works by Peter Richards, AMD & ART, Jackie Brookner and numerous others have a similar ecological agenda thus involving yet not highlighting genetics.


Helen and Newton Harrison. The Lagoon Cycle (begun 1972). While conducting their project, the artists discovered a methodology by which the edible crab Scylla serrata could be bred in captivity, something that had never been done before.

Experimenting with Animal Breeding as Art
In her 1993 work A-Z Breeding Units for Averaging 8 Breeds, Andrea Zittel satirically employs counter domestication strategies to generate ancestral chickens. [33] For the project, Zittel created architectural like chick incubators designed to regress several domestic breeds of chickens back to a more "original" state. In theory the three tiered sculpture contained channels that allowed eggs from the upper tiers to mingle and hatch with eggs from the middle level. Chicks from these mixed eggs would hatch and mix with others breeds to create new eggs that would be funneled down to the bottom layer. Here the process would culminate with the creation of a mixed chicken more "wild" than the initial breeds it was created from. Based more on conceptual notions of anti-utilitarianism and Rube Goldberg like design, the "Units" looked better than they actually produced chickens.
Another Zittel work, A-Z Breeding Units for Reassigning Flight, also was designed to create a more "wild" like chicken, one with the ability to fly. Years of selective breeding have left domestic chickens with "short stubby wings" unable to carry their large bodies more than a distance of a few feet. Working with the notion of selection based on fitness Zittel's installation funneled eggs to varying heights. Hens would have to fly up to reach their nests. Eggs from hens unable to reach their eggs did not hatch-selected out the gene pool. Exhibited in the window of the New Museum of Art in New York City viewers were able to watch this backwards evolutionary drama being played out in front of them.
Christopher Ebener and Uli Winters collaborated to create mice capable of paralyzing computer networks. [34] The piece entitled, BYTE, used reward based training methods developed by B.F. Skinner to encourage mice to destroy electronic cables. Individual mice were housed in a cage with a computer wire running through it. When the mice chewed through the cable a monitoring device automatically rewarded the destructive act by feeding them. The actions of the mice were recorded and shown on a monitor for comparison. While installed in 1989 at Ars Electronica viewers could see the tested mice performing and analyze which animals would be the fittest for breeding. Subjects that performed well (by eating the most cables) were bred with other high rating animals. The idea being that the offspring would have greater tendency to gnaw through wires, than the previous generations.
Selectively inbreeding species of fish can create genetic mutations that result in physical variation and often malformations. This practice is common in the North American pet industry where dozens of species of fish have been aesthetically "designed" to appeal to customers. In his work Natural Fish, artist David Kremers is experimenting with the common pet store zebra danio fish. [35] Apparently this species is quite genetically malleable and is able to be physically transformed through selective breeding. The artist exhibits the living animals and refers to them as "sculptures."




Top: Brandon Ballengee. The project of African frog species (Hymenochirus Curtipes) recreation by means of backward selective breeding, 1999-current.
Bottom: Zebra danio fish / Brachydanio nigrofasciatus. Photographed by Brandon Ballengee in New York City, 2002.

While an artist in residence at MASS MoCA, Natalie Jeremijenko documented pattern diversity in 10,000 ladybugs. [36] The piece called The Great LadyBug Animation involved digitally recording each animal and creating animated frames from the stills. Although members of the same species and genetically similar, each insect has distinct individual features. Jeremijenko also invited others to submit images of lady bugs to the archive via the internet. The final animation was exhibited on a miniature LCD monitor, where viewers could see the remarkable variation. By simply contrasting the images with one another, Jeremijenko was able to show differences instead of similarities in genetics. This piece also questions traditional biological methods of categorizing species based on similarity.
Jeremijenko has also been observing pattern variation in monarch butterflies. [37] In this case the artist is not only recording the animals but she has raised and actually bred them. On her sixth generation, Jeremijenko has documented females from each generation. "The frames in this animation are a daughter of a daughter of a daughter etc. In this way we can see that the genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity of simple but beautiful 2d variation." [38] Again presenting the frames on a miniature LCD monitor, the viewer is able to view almost life-size brilliantly colored images of the creatures morphing from one to the next.


Christopher Ebener and Uli Winters. Byte (detail), 1989. Installation at Ars Electronica 1989, Linz, Austria.

Also working with insects, artist Tara Galanti began growing 2000 Silk moths to get over her fear of them. [39] Over time, fear became devotion and Galanti began to experiment with a breeding campaign aimed at creating a fully flying adult. Silk moths have been domesticated for hundreds of years. For the silk industry, Moths with the largest cocoons (with more silk) are selected out and bred. Larvae that are not chosen are boiled and eaten while their cocoons are refined to create silk works. The majority of the animals never reach adulthood, and those that do are believed to have lost their ability to fly over numerous generations of domestic care. When exhibiting her moths, Galanti creates flower like sculptures with multileveled platforms on which she places female moths. Males on the other hand, hatch from a central element. Fertile females release pheromones encouraging the males to fly over. Though still in the early stages of the project, the artist has recorded an individual male that flew 4.5 inches. The eggs fertilized by this individual have been kept and Galanti intends to carefully breed his offspring.




Natalie Jeremijenko. The Great LadyBug Animation, 2000. The images of lady bugs from the artist archive.

Since 1996, I have been studying the occurrence of deformities and population declines in amphibians. These studies have involved numerous ecological field surveys as well conducting primary biological research. A long-term experimental project I have been working on involves breeding Hymenochirus family frogs. This tropical family is native to the Congo region of Africa. Hymenochirus curtipes was once a widely distributed species in the pet and laboratory specimen trade. Recent literature suggests that biodiversity in the Congo is threatened by clearing of forests for agricultural use and increased economic demand for rain forest wood (primarily trom the US and European markets). Over the past forty years the species or perhaps the entire Hymenochirus family may have been depleted or become extinct from their native range. Political chaos and civil turmoil in the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire, over the past decade have severely limited biological studies. Data available on the remaining species of amphibians in the Congo is inconclusive.


Evolution stages of Monarch butterfly.

Working with what I believe to be several domesticated sub-species, I am attempting to selectively breed generations backwards to produce a Hymenochirus curtipes. An investigation into historic scientific literature leads me to believe that H. curtipes is a shorter limbed wild-type version that differs considerably from the domesticated laboratory frogs that I began with. In what Darwin referred to as regression, I have breed like with like attempting to resurface historically described physical traits. When exhibiting this project in a museum or gallery context, I have displayed documentary photographs and text explaining the progression and methods employed within this project. More importantly though, I have exhibited multiple generations of the living Hymenochirus frogs. I consider them to be the actual artworks. Each generation is stylistically different just as each individual animal is unique and should be viewed simultaneously as a living creature and a work of art.


Monarch butterflies.

A Question of Ethics and the Environment
Darwin's theories of natural selection certainly offered a challenge to the dogma of the 18th century church but some would argue that current scientific and cultural practices still reflect an earlier materialistic and mechanical world view. Jim Mason in his manifesto An Unnatural Order theorizes that anti-natural philosophies, such as Bacons and Descartes ingrained in our civilization are a key component to why we have exploited resources and ravaged our environment to the edge of global catastrophe. [40]

This on-line version of the book "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture" is not full. The unabridged edition can be purchased in printed form as anthology. Requests should be sent to: bulatov@ncca.koenig.ru (full information) or in written form: 236000, Russia, Kaliningrad, 18, Marx str., The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”. Phone requests: Kaliningrad +7(0112)216251, Saint-Petersburg +7(812)3885881, Moscow +7(095)2867666. On-line bookshop (in Russian): http://www.yantskaz.ru. Full reference to this book: "Biomediale. Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture". Edited and curated by Dmitry Bulatov. The National Centre for Contemporary art (Kaliningrad branch, Russia), The National Publishing House “Yantarny Skaz”: Kaliningrad, 2004. ISBN 5-7406-0853-7

Great care should be given to assure that no nonnative domestic species should be allowed to enter the wild. Although selective breeding altars the physical matrix of a given genetic line which has had major influences on civilization, the ability of the breed to cross freely with their wild ancestors resulting in regression implies a minor evolutionary phenomenon. [45]




One of Tara Galanti's Silk moths. Courtesy the artist.

In addition to selective breeding, numerous artists have experimented with transgenic manipulation of organisms as artwork. Transgenics refers to process by which genes form one organism are transplanted into another organism creating a new species. These artists currently make up a minority but transgenic art is certainty a field that will continue to be explored in the coming decades. Yet with transgenic manipulation potentially new environmental concerns arise. Again accidental release is a major concern. In this case the organism would not be able to regress, but instead may hybridize with native species creating a kind of artificial genetic drift. Creating organisms through selective breeding or transgenic technologies involves a special kind of responsibility associated with the life-long wellfare the organism and the surrounding environment. The care of the organism should in no way be compromised by its placement inside of the context of art. It is my hope that new discoveries in genetic research and artworks will help us to fully realize how connected all life-forms are. With this understanding are role as stewards of this small fragile planet may yet be realized.

Works cited/ bibliography page:
[1]. Thurston, M. E. The Lost History of the Canine Race: Our 15,000 - Year Love Affair with Dogs (Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 1996).
[2]. Fisher, J. Zoos of the World: The History of Animals in Captivity (New York: The Natural History Press, 1967), p.21.
[3]. Darwin, Ch. The Origin of Species (New York: Bantam Books, 1999), p.30.
[4]. Budiansky, S. The Nature of Horses: Exploring Equine Evolution, Intelligence and Behavior (New York: The Free Press, 1997), p.11.
[5]. Gessert, G. "A History of Art Involving DNA," in: Art Papers, Sept./October Issue, Atlanta, 1996, p.228.
[6]. Sauer, C. Seeds, Spades, Hearths and Herds (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1969), p.27.
[7]. Fisher in Ibid., p.24.
[8]. Fisher in Ibid., p.25.
[9]. Darwin in Ibid., p.12.
[10]. Simon, F. A., Wisner N. C. Keeping Koi (New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 1996), p.9.
[11]. Gessert in Ibid., p.229.
[12]. Davies, G. The History of Chickens and Other Barnyard Birds.
[13]. Linaker, M. The Eden Flock Pedigree Ryeland Sheep website.
[14]. Dovc, P. Animal Breeding from a Quantitative to Molecular Approach. <http://www2.arnes.si/~quark/Quark98i2/Dovc/Frames52right.html>
[15]. Olliver, L. Scientific Challenges to Animal Breeding and Genetics. <http://agbio.cabweb.org>
[16]. Bacon, F. Novum Organum (Edited by Joseph Devey, New York: American Home Library Co., 1902).
[17]. Mason, J. An Unnatural Order: Why Are We Destroying the Planet and Each Other (New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 1997), pp.37-38.
[18]. Darwin in Ibid., p.27.
[19]. Gessert in Ibid., p.229.
[20]. Rachman, C. Monet (London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1997), pp.281-291.
[21]. Gedrim, R. J. "Edward Steichen's 1936 Exhibition of Delphinium Blooms," in: History of Photography (Volume 17, No. 4, London: Taylor and Francis, 1993), pp.352-363.
[22]. Tate Modern Website. Zero to Infinity: Atre Povera 1962-1972. <http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/artepovera/kounellis.htm>
[23]. Borja-Villel, M. J. L' exposicio Hans Haacke: "Obra social." (Barcelona: Fundacio Antoni Tapies, 1995).
[24]. Wilson, S. Information Arts: Int_ersections of Art, Science, and Technology (Cambridge, Mass and London: The MIT Press, 2002), p.111.
[25]. Harrison, H.M., Harrison, N. The Lagoon Cycle (Ithaca, New York: Office of University Publications, Cornell University, 1985).
[26]. Kastner, J., Wallis, B. Land and Environmental Art (London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1998), p.168.
[27]. Kastner, Wallis. in Ibid p.150.
[28]. Spaid, S. Ecovention: Current Art to Transform Ecologies (Cincinnati: Co-published by Greenmuseum.org, The Contemporary Arts Center and Ecoartspace, 2002), pp.61-64.
[29]. Spaid in Ibid., pp.115-118.
[30]. Kastner, Wallis. in Ibid., p.161.
[31]. Spaid in Ibid., pp.72-74.
[32]. Wilson in Ibid., p.144.
[33]. Artist's Website. Andrea Zittel's A-Z An Institute of Investigative Living. <http://www.zittel.org/Pages/A-ZBreedingUnits.html>
[34]. Artist's Website. The Homepage of Christopher Ebener and Uli Winters.
<http://www.c-ebener.de/winters.html>
[35]. Bureaud, A. "Art Biologique: Retrospective-Gallery," in: Art Press, No. 276 February Issue, Paris, 2002, p.45.
[36]. Artist's Website. The Great LadyBug Animation. <http://cat.nyu.edu/natalie/projectdatabase/>
[37]. Jeremijenko, Natalie. Personal Conversation. September 6, 2000.
[38]. Artist's Website. Butterflies Animations Series. <http://cat.nyu.edu/natalie/projectdatabase/>
[39]. Galanti, Tara. "Moths/ecovention" Email Correspondence. June 28, 2002.
[40]. Mason in Ibid., pp.36-39.
[41]. Mason in Ibid., p.298.
[42]. Wison, E.O. The Future of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002), p.149.
[43]. Wison in Ibid., p.132.
[44]. Greenpeace Website: Effects on the Environment. <http://www.greenpeacesoutheastasia.org/en/seaissuege01.html>
[45]. Siegel, P. All Roads Lead Through Animals Genetics. <http://agbio.cabweb.org>




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COLOPHON

CONTENTS:

I. LABORATORY: science and technology

Svetlana Borinskaya. Genomics and Biotechnology: Science at the Beginning of the Third Millennium.

Mikhail Gelfand. Computational Genomics: from the Wet Lab to Computer and Back.

Irina Grigorjan, Vsevolod Makeev. Biochips and Industrial Biology.

Valery Shumakov, Alexander Tonevitsky. Xenotransplantation as a Scientific and Ethic Problem.

Abraham Iojrish. Legal Aspects of Gene Engineering.

Pavel Tishchenko. Genomics: New Science in the New Cultural Situation.
II. FORUM: society and genomic culture

Eugene Thacker. Darwin's Waiting Room.

Critical Art Ensemble. The Promissory Rhetoric of Biotechnology in the Public Sphere.

SubRosa. Sex and Gender in the Biotech Century.

Ricardo Dominguez. Nano-Fest Destiny 3.0: Fragments from the Post-Biotech Era.

Birgit Richard. Clones and Doppelgangers. Multiplications and Reproductions of the Self in Film.

Sven Druehl. Chimaera Phylogeny: From Antiquity to the Present.
III. TOPOLOGY: from biopolitics to bioaesthetics

Boris Groys. Art in the Age of Biopolitics.

Stephen Wilson. Art and Science as Cultural Acts.

Melentie Pandilovski. On the Phenomenology of Consciousness, Technology, and Genetic Culture.

Roy Ascott. Interactive Art: Doorway to the Post-Biological Culture.
IV. INTERACTION CODE: artificial life

Mark Bedau. Artificial Life Illuminates Human Hyper-creativity.

Louis Bec. Artificial Life under Tension.

Alan Dorin. Virtual Animals in Virtual Environments.

Christa Sommerer, Laurent Mignonneau. The Application of Artificial Life to Interactive Computer Installations.
V. MODERN THEATRE: ars genetica

George Gessert. A History of Art Involving DNA.

Kathleen Rogers. The Imagination of Matter.

Brandon Ballengee. The Origins of Artificial Selection.

Marta de Menezes. The Laboratory as an Art Studio.

Adam Zaretsky. Workhorse Zoo Art and Bioethics Quiz.
VI. IMAGE TECHNOLOGY: ars chimaera

Joe Davis. Monsters, Maps, Signals and Codes.

David Kremers. The Delbruck Paradox. Version 3.0.

Eduardo Kac. GFP Bunny.

Dmitry Bulatov. Ars Chimaera.

Valery Podoroga. Rene Descartes and Ars Chimaera.
VII. METABOLA: tissue culture and art

Ionat Zurr. Complicating Notions of Life - Semi-Living Entities.

Oron Catts. Fragments of Designed Life - the Wet Palette of Tissue Engineering.
VIII. P.S.

Dmitry Prigov. Speaking of Unutterable.

Wet art gallery

Biographies

Bibliography

Webliography

Glossary


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